Categoryissue 2021-09-10, publications

Benefits and barriers of environmental cooperation
with suppliers – the case of organic food distribution sector
in Poland


dr Piotr C. Sosnowski – Assistant Professor, University of Lodz, Faculty of Management, Department of Logistics, ul. Matejki 22/26, 90-237 Łódź, Polska; e-mail:

received 23.03.2021
accepted 22.04.2021


Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify benefits and barriers of environmental cooperation with suppliers in organic food distribution sector in Poland.
Design/methodology/approach: The research method used in this paper is review of existing literature and survey using CATI technique, conducted among organic food distribution companies in Poland.
Firstly, the environmental cooperation with suppliers is presented. Secondly, the characteristics of organic food supply chain is introduced. Next, the conducted study is described. Then the discussion of results is presented. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations for future research are outlined.
Findings/conclusions: The results concern acknowledged benefits and barriers of environmental cooperation with suppliers in organic food distribution sector in Poland.
Research limitations: The main limitation of the study is that it was conducted only in the organic food distribution sector and only in Poland.
Practical implications: The main practical implication of this study is that performing the environmental activities in cooperation with suppliers might improve the image of the company.
Originality/value: The value of this study lies in conducting it in organic food distribution sector in Poland.


environmental decision-making, cooperation with suppliers, B2B relationships, organic food distribution

Identification and Implementation of KPIs


Matthew Barsalou, M.Sc. –

Certified Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt, QPlus, Level 22, West Tower, Bahrain Financial Harbour P.O. Box 20705, Manama, Bahrain; e-mail:

received: 1.05.2021
accepted: 8.06.2021


Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine if KPIs (Key Process Indicators) are described using the acronym SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound).
Design/methodology/approach: The research consisted of database research. A database of nine journals with over 18,000 quality related articles was searched for the term “KPI”. The results were then searched for lists of KPIs. These KPIs were then copied to an online tool that identified the number of
occurrences of each word in the lists.
Findings/concussions: The most common words were non-KPI relevant words such as “of” and “and”. Out of the KPI related words, the most common were “%”, “percentage”, “number” and “per”. These quantification words pertain to the measurable aspect of the acronym SMART. The occurrence of these
words and others support the hypothesis that KPIs are described discussing the acronym SMART.
Practical implications: The use of the acronym SMART provides a method for assisting organizations in the creation of KPIs.
Originality/value: Much of the literature on KPIs is of a “how to” nature; this paper went a step farther and identified common word choices used in describing individual SMART KPIs.


quality, KPI, dashboard, cockpit chart, quality improvement

Software quality in an agile approach
for IT project management


mgr inż. Kamil Brodnicki – Katedra Informatyki w Zarządzaniu, Wydział Zarządzania i Ekonomii, Politechnika Gdańska, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Polska;

received 10.08.2021
accepted 30.08.2021


Purpose: The aim of the article is to verify whether the use of agile testing improves the software quality and to try to answer the question how an updated version of the Scrum Guide (November 2020) influenced the software development process.
Design/methodology/approach: The adopted research methodology is a review of the literature on the subject and the author’s own research.
Findings/conclusions: The conclusion of the research is the fact that the use of the Scrum agile approach positively affects the quality of the software produced. Following the guidelines contained in the Guide and increasing competences in production teams increases the awareness of the manufactured
products, which has a direct impact on quality.
Research limitations: The limitations in the conducted research include a relatively small number of conducted interviews. This number results from the difficulties in obtaining reliable data at present, but according to the author, such studies are much more reliable and carry more cognitive value than
quantitative studies.
Practical implications: The obtained results will undoubtedly contribute to the improvement of areas in the organization and their continuous improvement, and for organizations intending to transform from a classic to an agile approach – avoid duplicating potential mistakes.
Originality/value: So far, the literature on the subject lacks research focusing on comparing the current version of Scrum Guide with its previous version and the impact of these differences on the functioning of the organization.


project management, agile methodologies, Scrum, software quality

Positive shopping experiences in creating customer loyalty


dr Anna Dembicka – Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej i Okrętownictwa, Instytut Oceanotechniki i Okrętownictwa, Politechnika Gdańska, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Polska;

received 27.09.2021
accepted 18.10.2021


The shopping experience is a kind of mental journey, leaving immaterial impressions in the form of knowledge and emotional imprint [69], which are a key element in understanding consumer behavior, as well as significant changes taking place in contemporary marketing [10].
Purpose: The main aim of the research was to show, based on extensive literature studies, the impact of positive purchasing experiences on shaping satisfaction and purchasing loyalty, as well as ways of building positive experiences that engage the buyer. The intermediate goal included the systematization
of the terminological apparatus relating to the interdependencies between the concepts of: purchasing experience, satisfaction and quality perceived by the customer.
Design/methodology/approach: The publication uses the method of critical analysis of the literature on the subject and the method of synthesis. The author also referred to the conclusions of her own research, conducted as part of the doctoral dissertation [13].
Findings/conclusions: Knowledge of the mechanisms of creating positive purchasing experiences affects the effectiveness of business processes and maintaining a competitive advantage.
Research limitations: Among the publications discussing the issues of Customer Experience, only a few of them refer to the experience of internal customers of enterprises (employees), moreover, the specificity of individual industries makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the entire working population.
However, regardless of the branch of the economy, formulating strategies supporting the process of building positive experiences of an external customer should take into account the aspect of implementing functional and emotional expectations occurring in the employee’s life cycle (purchasing experience creator), at the stage of employee selection, in the processes of motivation, internal communication, development and recruitment.
Practical implications: The conclusions presented in the article can be used by manufacturing and/or service companies that prioritize building and strengthening relations between buyers and the enterprise.
Originality/value: The publication shows the current and future directions of research on the role of positive purchasing experiences, which are a demand factor – subject to more and more extensive analyzes – experience economy (economy).


positive shopping experience, quality perception, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty