Categoryissue 2021-07-08, publications

Digital customer of the new era – Customer 4.0

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dr hab. Adam SKRZYPEK – prof. UPH, Instytut Nauk o Zarządzaniu i Jakości, Wydział Nauk Społecznych, UPH Siedlce, ul. Żytnia 39, 08-110 Siedlce, Polska;
e-mail: adam.skrzypek@uph.edu.pl

received 25.06.2021
accepted 19.07.2021

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the research was to indicate, based on literature studies, the role of Customer 4.0 and to discuss Customers’ 4.0 distinguishing features, expectations and needs. In view of the growing role of the Customer Experience (CX) concept, an attempt was made to indicate its usefulness in shaping overall customer experience.
Research design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted based on the study of available literature and inference.
Findings/conclusions: In the conditions of digital revolution, 4.0 digital customers distinguish themselves from the general group of buyers. 4.0 customers are educated, independent, have self-esteem, are prosumers, co-create products, expect individualized products. Customer Experience (CX) is a proven tool for shaping Customer 4.0. Customer Experience is achieved through long-term and time-consuming process of building organization’s culture. Customer Experience comes to the fore in CX and customer relationship management. Conclusion: Acquiring and retaining Customer 4.0 and incorporating their experience into business decisions should translate into effective business processes.
Limitations: There is not enough literature on the relationship between the digital 4.0 customer, the 4.0 revolution and the CX concept. Future research should concern directions of building relations in the field of Customer 4.0, CX, Industry 4.0, Trade 4.0, Quality 4.0, Standardization 4.0 taking into consideration development of new technologies and limitations resulting from crisis situations, including pandemics.
Practical implications: The research results presented in the article can be used by market research analysts and production companies that are aware of the growing importance of the customer 4.0, as a new generation of customers who need to be understood to meet their requirements and expectations, and even surpass them in order to survive in the market and win against the competition.
Originality/value: This study, based on the analysis of available literature, indicates current research directions related to the creation of customer 4.0 category. Those customers who are looking for efficiency, high quality service. They are account for a significant share of global market demand. The phenomenon requires that organisations must keep up with prevailing trends in the area of new technologies. This study indicates the directions of further research in the field of solutions improving relations with the digital customer in the conditions of changes, risk, uncertainty and lack of business continuity.

Keywords:

customer 4.0, digital customer, Customer Experience, prosumer

The role of supplier development programs in improving products and processes

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prof. dr hab. Maciej URBANIAK – Uniwersytet Łódzki, Wydział Zarządzania, Katedra Logistyki, ul. Matejki 22/26, 90-237 Łódź, Polska; e-mail: Maciej.urbaniak@uni.lodz.pl

received: 15.07.2021
accepted: 30.07.2021

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present the role of supplier development programs in improving products and processes, as well as to indicate the related benefits and barriers.
Design/methodology/approach: The article uses the method of critical analysis of the literature, the method of synthesis and logical inference.
Findings/conclusions: It was found that supplier development programs are more and more often oriented towards implementing risk management concepts in order to reduce the level of quality defects or avoid the risk of delays in delivery. Effective implementation of these programs allows suppliers and recipients to improve the quality of products, shorten process cycles and reduce their costs, as well as improve mutual communication. Supplier development activities contribute to lowering transaction costs related to searching for new procurement opportunities, conducting audits and other forms of supplier evaluation, verification and qualification. The most common barriers that can be noticed when implementing this type of programs include the lack of adequate resources at suppliers and too significant differences in the organizational cultures of partners.
Research limitations: Research limitations may be focusing on an arbitrarily selected group of scientific publications. In the future, in order to better recognize the phenomenon, the method of a synthetic literature review should be used.
Practical implications: The presented methodology for implementing supplier development programs can be used by enterprises in building a value chain to improve products and processes. These programs are examples of helping suppliers in the implementation of quality, environment, safety system management and improvement tools such as TPS, Lean Management or Six Sigma.
Originality/value: The methodology of implementing supplier development programs presented in the article may be an example of good practices in building relationships between cooperating companies.

Keywords:

supplier development programs, product and process improvement

Standardization in the implementation of the qualitative goals of the European Green Deal concept

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prof. dr hab. inż. Jerzy ŻUCHOWSKI – Uniwersytet Humanistyczno-Technologiczny im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego w Radomiu, Wydział Inżynierii Chemicznej i Towaroznawstwa, ul. Bolesława Chrobrego 37, 26-600 Radom, Polska; e-mail: j.zuchowski@uthrad.pl
mgr inż. Edmund ŁAGOWSKI – praktyk gospodarczy, emerytowany pracownik UTH w Radomiu, Polska; e-mail: edmund@lagowski.eu

received 9.06.2021
accepted 21.07.2021

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the article was to organize the standardization knowledge in the context of the implementation of the European Green Deal concept. An answer was sought to the question: to what extent ISO standards can become useful in achieving the goals of sustainable development. In the article Thinking Life Cycle was accepted as significantly supporting such development.
Design/methodology/approach: In order to emphasize the role of standardization as a determinant of sustainable development, its strength was emphasized through an integrated, comprehensive and coherent process impact. Research was conducted based on a critical analysis of the literature on the subject and a comparative evaluation of strategies supporting sustainable development.
Findings/conclusions: As a result of the conducted analyzes, the importance of ISO standards in achieving the quality objectives of the European Green Deal concept was noticed. Support for this concept by ISO standards should mainly concern the areas of organization management and product life aspects.
Practical implications: In order to achieve the goals of sustainable development, it was indicated that the ISO 9004: 2018 standard is a valuable set of basic recommendations that an organization should take into account in striving to achieve lasting success. However, it was noticed that the slowdown in legislative work on the implementation of the European Green Deal concept and the implementation stages limited the research field in the field of standardization solutions. The dynamic acceleration assumed after the coronavirus epidemic will most likely result in a more complete look at the usefulness of ISO standards in the synergy of these impacts.
Originality/value: The conclusions from the research may also be important in economic practice, ensuring the organization that sustained success should be combined with the concept of sustainable development. The innovativeness of the article is related to the above-mentioned aspects of impacts in the area of standardization – sustainable development.

Keywords:

quality, standardization, ISO standards, Green Deal

THE DECOMPOSITION OF THE FEELINGS MODULE OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE – THE SECOND COMPONENT „GRATITUDE”

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prof. dr hab. Tadeusz BORYS – Uniwersytet Zielonogórski, Katedra Zarządzania Środowiskiem i Gospodarką Publiczną, Instytut Nauk o Zarządzaniu i Jakości, ul. Licealna 9, 65–417 Zielona Góra, Polska; e-mail: t.borys@wez.uz.zgora.pl

received 16.08.2021
accepted 20.08.2021

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify gratitude as another component of the feelings module of the quality of life by seeking answers to the following four important questions: what is gratitude? (that feeling or emotion); what are the related feelings of gratitude? (mutually supportive energies); what are the emotional curtains of gratitude? (“sleepers” of gratitude) and why should we be grateful? (nothing more profitable). This article, in its content and form, refers to the two previous publications (No. 3 and 6/2021 “Problems of Quality”) [1, 2], in which an attempt was made to define the feelings module and the recognition of subsequent its components was announced.
Design/methodology/approach: The article uses, with some necessary modification of research questions, the structure of the analysis adopted in the publication [2] on hope. This significantly increases the comparative value of this article. This is important to ensure the necessary consistency in the approach to concept analysis under consideration in this cycle. The recognition of the gratitude category was based on a literature review and semantic analysis of this category.
Findings/conclusions: The main conclusion of the article boils down to the statement that the source of gratitude lies in the emotional (spiritual) sphere and emotional logic, and the three most frequently mentioned emotional forms (affective trait, mood and emotion) can be and generally are colors (emotional imaging) this feeling. Thus, the psychic sphere also plays an important role here, but true gratitude, i.e. the source of possible positive emotional states (as psychological derivative states), is the feeling of gratitude, and not the independent, felt in autonomy, emotional state.
Originality/value: The features of the cognitive novelty of this article should be primarily seen in the presented approach to the category of gratitude, based on a clear distinction between feelings and emotions and the conclusion that despite the advancement of research in the field of psychology, there is still no clear separation between the psychic and feelings spheres. It is for this reason that a large part of this research lacks clear inspiration in reaching the essence of humanity, i.e. the sphere of feelings and, consequently, recognizing gratitude as a feelings category.

Keywords:

quality of life, module, feelings, emotions, gratitude