CategoryIn issue 04-2023, publication

TQM as the basis for quality transformations in higher education


dr hab. inż. Piotr GRUDOWSKI – prof. Politechniki Gdańskiej, Wydział Zarządzania i Ekonomii, Politechnika Gdańska, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-293 Gdańsk, Polska; e-mail:

Otrzymano/Received 22.08.2023. Przyjęto/Accepted 24.08.2023


Purpose: Presentation of the most important conclusions from research conducted in various regions of the world and own observations showing the impact of the TQM concept on the effects of management in higher education institutions.
Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was used according to J. Creswell’s methodological recommendations. The conclusions drawn from the considerations were based on the inductive approach.
Findings/conclusions: Factors supporting the introduction of TQM in universities were presented. Typical problems encountered in connection with the introduction of TQM and related concepts in universities were also indicated. Conditions for effective integration of quality initiatives at universities with the concept of Quality 4.0 and Society 5.0 were defined.
Research limitations: Only selected, key supporting factors and problems related to the application of TQM in universities were selected by the author. Conclusions are limited to the results of research available as part of the study of world literature and the author’s own experience.
Practical implications: The indicated conclusions from research and practical experience can be taken into account by the university staff responsible for improving processes within specific projects.
Originality/value: The article organizes the theory and practice of the role of the TQM concept in improving university management systems, indicating the factors that should be the subject of research in this area.


total quality management (TQM), higher education

Sustainable development aspects in labeling of food products


dr Mariusz CHMIELEWSKI – Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Katedra Strategicznego Rozwoju, Zakład Zrównoważonego Rozwoju i Nauk o Jakości, 81-824 Sopot, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, Polska; e-mail:
dr inż. Ewa MALINOWSKA – Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Katedra Strategicznego Rozwoju, Zakład Zrównoważonego Rozwoju i Nauk o Jakości, 81-824 Sopot, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, Polska; e-mail:
dr Renata PŁOSKA – Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Katedra Strategicznego Rozwoju, Zakład Zrównoważonego Rozwoju i Nauk o Jakości, 81-824 Sopot, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, Polska; e-mail:
dr Małgorzata SZYMAŃSKA-BRAŁKOWSKA – Uniwersytet Gdański, Wydział Zarządzania, Katedra Strategicznego Rozwoju, Zakład Zrównoważonego Rozwoju i Nauk o Jakości, 81-824 Sopot, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, Polska; e-mail:

Received 3.07.2023. Accepted 31.07.2023


Purpose: The main aim of this article was an attempt to assess to what extent suppliers of selected groups of food products, available in discount stores such as Lidl and Biedronka, use non-compulsory sustainability labeling. The additional aim was an attempt to check if the selection of that kind of labeling varies from one group to another.
Design/methodology/approach: The study consisted of an analysis of sustainability-related labeling on the packaging of selected food products available in selected shops of the Lidl and Biedronka retail chains, located in the Tri-City. The research was qualitative and was based on following methods: the method of non-participant, covert observation, the method of comparative analysis, the method of synthesis and logical inference. The study has a pilot character is the basis for further detailed research.
Findings/conclusions: The results show that food suppliers do not sufficiently use sustainability-related labeling. In case of ecolabels, they usually relate to recycling. Relatively many labels are identified as quality-related, and many referred to the origin of products. As study shows there is hardly any social labeling on food products. A large variety of non-compulsory labels were observed that contributed to their free classification that is only authors’ proposal. Own brands of discount stores mostly inform customers about the origin of products, on how to recycle packaging, guaranteed by own quality standards. The largest variety of labels characterized the packaging of dairy products.
Research limitations: Only four groups of food products were selected for this research, and within these, selected product categories. The packaging of products were observed, which during 28-29th of June 2023, were available at observation sites. The study was conducted in shops belonging to the two most popular discount retail chains in Poland, located in Tri-City.
Practical implications: The results may start a deeper assessment of the use of sustainable labeling in the process of communication between producers, distributors of food products and customers. The results may help suppliers in identifying future activities and understanding customers’ attitude toward sustainable development. This may contribute to a positive perception of producers and distributors and provide a form of advertising for them.
Originality/value: The results of the research present the preliminary determination of the use of sustainable labeling on the packaging of selected food products available in two discount retail chains.


product labeling, ecological labeling, social labeling, quality labeling, sustainable labeling, food products, sustainable development

From classics to quality 4.0 and 5.0 – determinants and consequences


prof. dr hab. Elżbieta SKRZYPEK – Wydział Ekonomiczny UMCS Lublin, Katedra Kapitału Intelektualnego i Jakości, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Polska; e-mail:
dr hab. Adam SKRZYPEK – Katedra Zarządzania Przedsiębiorstwem, Instytut Dziennikarstwa i Zarządzania, Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II,
Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Polska; e-mail:

Received 27.07.2023. Accepted 7.08.2023


Purpose: In the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution, there are many changes that organisations have to face. The need arises to adapt to functioning in new conditions while accepting solutions that have been proven in practical operations. In the conditions of Industry 4.0, changes also affect solutions in the quality sphere. The aim of this article is to show the conditions for the emergence of Quality 4.0, its understanding and consequences. Furthermore, a presentation of the impact of Industry 4.0 on the improvement of Quality 4.0. These problems are shown in relation to the published research results of selected authors and own research. An important objective is also to refer to Society 5.0 and Quality 5.0.
Design/methodology/approach: The article reviews the work devoted to the issue of Quality 4.0, presents selected research results, and presents the results of own research obtained on the basis of the author’s questionnaire addressed to 300 Polish enterprises with an implemented QMS.
Findings/conclusions: The results obtained based on literature studies and surveys indicate the development of the concept of Quality 4.0, the difficulties in perceiving it and the implementation of quality management 4.0. This implies the need for improved competence, more emphasis on training and a change in pro-quality awareness. In addition, further research and implementation of practical solutions to improve quality management 4.0 and 5.0 are needed. Continuation of scientific conferences that enable the exchange of knowledge between science and practice is essential.
Research limitations: 300 quality-oriented companies in Poland were surveyed, many of them did not participate in the research or provided incomplete information, so there is a need to continue the research and extend it also to companies without an implemented QMS.
Practical implications: The results presented point to research directions that should be undertaken to clarify, encourage and indicate ways to implement the solutions brought about by the 4.0 revolution and to identify ways to overcome the problems that arise. An exchange of knowledge and experience between science and practice is necessary in this regard.
Originality/value: Possible approaches to Quality 4.0 are indicated, the need for the interaction between Industry 4.0 and Quality 4.0 is justified, the possibilities of Industry 4.0 in the process of improving quality management 4.0 are indicated, the rationale for the development of Quality 5.0 in the conditions of Society 5.0 is presented.


Quality 4.0, Quality 5.0, Industry 4.0, Society 4.0 and 5.0